While Singapore is heavily dependent on fossil fuels, given its severe limitations on using alternative energy, Singapore had made early policy choices to reduce its GHG footprint by switching from fuel oil to natural gas, the cleanest form of fossil fuel, for electricity generation, even though it meant higher cost. Today, over 90% of electricity is generated from natural gas. Singapore prices energy at market cost, without any subsidy, to reflect resource scarcity and promote judicious usage. On top of this, and despite the challenges, the government is significantly increasing the deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems.
Singapore had in 2009 pledged unconditionally to reduce emissions to 7% to 11% below its business-as-usual (BAU) level by 2020. Contingent on the conclusion of a universal legally binding agreement in 2015, Singapore will further reduce emissions to BAU-16% by 2020. As a result of continued mitigation efforts, Singapore’s emissions are expected to grow at a lower rate compared to GDP growth for 2005-2020. For the 2021-2030 period, Singapore intends to build on its previous mitigation efforts to stabilise its emissions with the aim of peaking around 2030. In 2012, Singapore’s Emissions Intensity (EI) ranked favourably at 113 out of 140 countries1 despite Singapore’s limitations in using alternative energy. Singapore’s EI is projected to decline further by around 2.5% annually from 2021-2030, compared to the already planned reduction of around 1.5% annually from 2005-2020.
Alongside efforts to reduce emissions and achieve sustainable development, Singapore is also implementing measures to address sea-level rise and above-average warming temperatures.